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Neolithic

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Neolithic

5 500 - 2 200 B.C.

The transition from hunters and gatherers of the Middle Stone Age to the peasants of the Neolithic Age is by no means clear. But it turns out that both groups did not meet here directly, rather they missed each other for more than a thousand years. The first settlers did not aim for the Altmühltal valley as well. It was the fertile loess areas in the Ingolstadt basin, at Pförring, Kösching and Gaimersheim where they settled.

Band Ceramic

5 500 - 4 900 B.C.

Only in the advanced epoch of the band ceramic a transmigration has started, probably there already was some colonization. Beilngries could have been one of these places. Sickle inserts, for example, found in the meadow "Im Oehl" and on the Oberndorfer Berg, are in favor of this theory. In the further northern extension of the loess plateau, seen from Oberndorf, even ceramic remains were picked up.

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stroke-ornamented ware/ Oberlauterbacher Culture / Bavarian Rössen, Rössen, Southeastern Bavarian Middle Neolithic

4 900 - 4 500 B.C.

Significant sites of the Middle Neolithic have been discovered in recent decades on the high plateau of the Jurassic, on the loess-covered land tongues east of the Sulztal as well as on the slopes of the Beilngries valley junctions.

Find sites of the Middle Neolithic Age stand out due to their big number of stone tools. Often these were made from “plate silex” of raw material sources at Abensberg / Arnhofen. It’s the same in the find places Kevenhüll and Obernberg. Noticeably, small drills were produced frequently. In large numbers stone axes of amphibolite are found, some are perforated. They are still very reminiscent of the typical "shoe bar wedges" of the band ceramics. To grind the grain, hand mills were used- they were made from chalk quartzite. Hematite stones, also called red iron stone, deserve special interest too. Friction produced a red powder which was mixed with grease and then applied to the skin. The ceramic was fragmented into very small pieces by modern farming methods.

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Münchshöfener Culture

4 500 - 3 800 B.C.

The settlement activity of the Middle Neolithic was not permanent. The next step was the Münchshöfener Culture. It has its main distribution area in Lower Bavaria and the area on both sides of the River Danube to approximately the River Lech. The settlement finds of Beilngries, especially from recent times (industrial area of the Schmidt – Seeger company, today the Bühler company) are of great importance and mark the northwest border area of the spreading of this cultural level.

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Altheimer Culture

The Altheimer culture also had its core settlement in Lower Bavaria and extended along the Danube into the Ingolstadt basin. In the Altmuehl valley, the characteristic large hornstone sickles seem to have been produced, the raw material (plate silex) for them had been gathered by mining. Known are deposits and workshops in Baiersdorf and also in the Schernfelder Forest. Settlement places from this time could not be determined in Beilngries but there were some badly damaged Altheim sickle blades found.



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Chamer Culture

3 400- 2 800 B.C.

The Altmühl valley was developed during the Chamer culture as a settlement area. One of Bavaria's major settlements of this epoch was investigated in nearby Griesstetten during the construction of the Main - Danube Canal east of Dietfurt. There are a number of surface area finds from the town of Beilngries.

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String Ceramics Culture

2 800 - 2 500 B.C.

The first copper finds in Bavaria date back to the Münchshöfen culture. In the string ceramics culture, ornamental objects made of copper were rarely found in graves. The epoch presents itself to us almost exclusively in individual single graves. Accordingly, graves from this period were discovered in Ilbling and Enkering along the ICE train route.

Characteristic vessels of this culture are cups, which often carry circumferential ornaments. Notable additions in some tombs are carefully crafted daggers made of hornstone. There are finds from Beilngries that are to be regarded as settlement documents of this period. Thus, a dagger blade, which was excavated long ago, is attributed to this culture

On the road to Kinding, a complete cup could be recovered shortly before the turn of the millennium. Perhaps it was an addition to a grave in a tomb in which the bones of the skeleton were already completely gone.



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Bell Beaker Culture

2 500 - 2 200 B.C.

The Bell Beaker culture is known for its characteristic bell-shaped cups. In the older Bell Beaker Culture these are richly decorated with stamps. The indentions were filled with white paste and the smooth surface was painted red. In the younger phase of the culture there are no more ornaments. Remarkable grave goods are daggers made of copper and bracers made of fine sandstone. Sometimes there is even gold or amber jewelry.

From this era, too, we almost only know groups of graves and only a few references to associated settlements. In our area grave finds have been discovered in Dietfurt and Ilbling. In Beilngries there’s one find from the Bell Beaker Time: An on the inside crossshapedly decorated bowl.